The main dietary components of the diet for an individual with diabetes should be carbohydrate-containing foods with a low glycaemic index and cismonounsaturated fat.
Although it is important to give people with diabetes advice to modify their dietary intakes so that they shift the balance of their nutritional intake in the direction of the recommendations, the relative proportions of macronutrients may vary depending on the markers of diabetes control for the individual.
A combination of carbohydrate and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids should provide 60 – 70% total daily energy intake.
Total fat intake should be restricted to 35% total energy. Cis-monounsaturated fatty acids should provide between 10 and 20% total energy. Saturated and trans-fatty acids should provide under 10% total energy. Polyunsaturated fatty acids should not exceed 10% total energy. Protein intake should range between 10 and 20% total energy. Protein intake should not go below 0.6 g/kg normal body weight/day but should be at the lower end of the range (0.8 g/kg body weight/day) in cases of nephropathy or where abnormal microalbuminuria has been identified.
The relative proportions of macronutrients recommended in diabetes:
Protein (10 – 20%)
Carbohydrate (45 – 60%)
Cis-monounsaturated fat (10 – 20%)
Polyunsaturated fat (<10%)
Saturated/trans fat (<510%)