H. Referral for diabetes management
For a variety of reasons, some people with diabetes and their health care providers do not achieve the desired goals of treatment (Table 6). Intensification of the treatment regimenis suggested and includes identification (or assessment) of barriers to adherence, culturally appropriate and enhanced DSME, comanagement with a diabetes team, change in pharmacological therapy, initiation of or increase in SMBG, more frequent contact with the patient, and referral to an endocrinologist.
I. Intercurrent illness
The stress of illness, trauma, and/or surgery frequently aggravates glycemic control and may precipitate diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or nonketotic hyperosmolar state. Any condition leading to deterioration in glycemic control necessitates more frequent monitoring of blood glucose and urine or blood ketones. A vomiting illness accompanied by ketosis may indicate DKA, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical care to prevent complications and death; the possibility of DKA should always be considered. Marked hyperglycemia requires temporary adjustment of the treatment program and, if accompanied by ketosis, frequent interaction with the diabetes care team. The patient treated with oral glucose-lowering agents or MNT alone may temporarily require insulin. Adequate fluid and caloric intake must be assured. Infection or dehydration is more likely to necessitate hospitalization of the person with diabetes than the person without diabetes. The hospitalized patient should be treated by a physician with expertise in the management of diabetes, and recent studies suggest that achieving very stringent glycemic control may reduce mortality in the immediate postmyocardial infarction period. Aggressive glycemic management with insulin may reduce morbidity in patients with severe acute illness.
For further information on management of patients in the hospital with DKA or nonketotic hyperosmolar state, refer to the ADA position statement.
* Glucose (15??sed states, such as after transplantation. (C)
Influenza and pneumonia are common, preventable infectious diseases associated with high mortality and morbidity in the elderly and in people with chronic diseases. There are limited studies reporting the morbidity and mortality of influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia specifically in people with diabetes. Observational studies of patients with a variety of chronic illnesses, including diabetes, show that these conditions are associated with an increase in hospitalizations for influenza and its complications. Based on a case-control series, influenza vaccine has been shown to reduce diabetes-related hospital admission by as much as 79% during flu epidemics. People with diabetes may be at increased risk of the bacteremic form of pneumococcal infection and have been reported to have a high risk of nosocomial bacteremia, which has a mortality rate as high as 50%.
Safe and effective vaccines are available that can greatly reduce the risk of serious complications from these diseases. There is sufficient evidence to support that people with diabetes have appropriate serologic and clinical responses to these vaccinations. The Centers for Disease Control??a M: Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344:1343-1350, 2001
7. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, Hu ZX, Lin J, Xiao JZ, Cao HB, Liu PA, Jiang XG, Jiang YY, Wang JP, Zheng H, Zhang H, Bennett PH, Howard BV: Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: the DaQing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 20:537- 544, 1997
8. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group: Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346:393- 403, 2002
9. Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M: Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomized trial. Lancet 359:2072-2077, 2002
10. Sjostrom L, et al: XENDOS (Xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects): a landmark study. Poster presented at the International Congress on Obesity (ICO), San Paulo, Brazil, 2002
11. Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Peters RK, Kjos SL, Marroquin A, Goico J, Ochoa C, Tan S, Berkowitz, Hodis HN, Azen SP: Preservation of pancreatic β-cell function and prevention of type 2 diabetes by pharmacological trewatment of insulin resistance in high-risk hispanic women. Diabetes 51:2796 -2803, 2002
12.&nbsnbsp; Engelgau ME, Narayan KMV, Herman WH: Screening for type 2 diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 23:1563-1580, 2000 [erratum appears in Diabetes Care 23:1868 -1869, 2000]
13. American Diabetes Association: Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents (Consensus Statement). Diabetes Care 23:381-389, 2000
14. American Diabetes Association: Gestational diabetes mellitus (Position Statement). Diabetes Care 27 (Suppl. 1):S88 – S90, 2004
15. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of longterm complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 329: 977-986, 1993
16. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 352: 837- 853, 1998
17. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 352:854 -865, 1998