Diabetes mellitus, Type 2 Basics
Non-ketosis prone hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance due to defects in insulin secretion and peripheral insulin action. Accounts for 80% of diabetic cases.
System(s) affected: Endocrine/Metabolic, Nervous, Renal/Urologic, Cardiovascular
Genetics: Strong polygenic familial susceptibility. Concordance is nearly complete in identical twins.
Incidence/Prevalence in USA:
– 300/100,000 (males 230/100,000, females 340/100,000)
– More common in some groups such as Pima Indians with 35% prevalence
Predominant age: Typically occurs after age 40
Predominant sex: Female > Male in Caucasian populations
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
- Related to hyperglycemia and complications including nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy
- Weight loss
- Frequent infections
Genetic factors and obesity are important
- Family history
- Gestational diabetes